Examples of sp Hybridization: All compounds of beryllium like BeF 2, BeH 2, BeCl 2; All compounds of carbon-containing triple Bond like C 2 H 2. sp 2 Hybridization. sp 2 hybridization is observed when one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix to form 3 equivalent orbital. The new orbitals formed are called sp 2 hybrid orbitals. sp Hybridization in BeCl 2 The beryllium atom in a gaseous BeCl 2 molecule is an example of a central atom with no lone pairs of electrons in a linear arrangement of three atoms. There are two regions of valence electron density in the BeCl 2 molecule that correspond to the two covalent Be–Cl bonds.
This hybridization process involves mixing of the valence s orbital with one of the valence p orbitals to yield two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals that are oriented in a linear geometry (Figure 3). In this figure, the set of sp orbitals appears similar in shape to the original p orbital, but there is an important difference. Hybrid-ization Appearance 2 Linear 2 0 AX 2 linear 180° nonpolar 4 sp 180° 3 5 Trigonal Planar 3 0 AX 3 trigonal planar 120° nonpolar4 sp2 120° 2 1 AX 2E bent <120° polar sp 2 <120° 4 Tetrahedral 4 0 AX 4 tetrahedral 109.5° nonpolar 4 sp3 109.5° 3 1 AX 3E trigonal pyramidal <109.5° polar sp3 <109.5° 2 2 AX 2E 2 bent <109.5° polar sp ...
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Consider the structural formulas of atp adp and phosphate in model 2 carefully